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William W. Cooper Papers

 Collection
Identifier: 2013-33

Scope and Contents

The William W. Cooper Collection is housed in 86 boxes, comprising 85 linear feet, and arranged in 11 series and 18 subseries. The vast majority of the collection consists of paper based materials but some series contain photographs, disks, tapes, and other media. Series were designated for biographical information, publications, professional files, conferences and lectures, professional societies, academic files, correspondence, personal materials, photographs, and reference files. There is also a series designated for reports produced by the Center for Cybernetic Studies (CCS). The CCS materials comprise a separate series from the rest of his publications because Cooper did not author or co-author the bulk of the papers.

The collection documents William Cooper’s lengthy and diverse career, including his prolific research and writing career. It contains nearly all of Cooper’s publications, and it provides insight into his research and writing processes. The collection also includes material relating to his teaching activities, his consulting contracts, and his membership in professional societies. Notable items include Cooper’s graduate thesis and the seminal Data Envelopment Analysis article “Measuring the Efficiency of Decision Making Units.” The collection is strongest in materials relating to post-WWII accounting theories and early developments in the fields of management science and operations research. In addition, it contains valuable information on the history of Carnegie Mellon University, specifically the Graduate School of Industrial Administration and the School of Urban and Public Affairs. It contains minimal information on Cooper’s time at the University of Chicago and the Tennessee Valley Authority. The bulk of the collection is arranged alphabetically, and wherever possible, the processor retained original order.

Much of the William W. Cooper Collection is accessible on the web as part of the digital collections at the Carnegie Mellon University Libraries. The Libraries have made a best faith effort to assess our responsibilities and risks related to the copyright status of all of the items in this collection, and to make those items available in alignment with the best practices established by information science professionals. Our intention is to make this content available for use in research, teaching, and private study. We are always willing to discuss copyright concerns with a rights holder who finds his or her content in our collections. For more information see the ARL Code of Best Practices for Fair Use in Academic and Research Libraries.

Dates

  • Majority of material found within 1960-1990
  • 1887 - 2012

Creator

Restrictions

Records that contain personally identifiable information will be closed to protect individual privacy. This includes student materials from series 7 and proposals from series 4.

Conditions Governing Use

Copyright to the collection has been transferred to Carnegie Mellon University. Materials from series 2 and series 3 may be subject to other restrictions. For more information, see individual articles and papers.

Biography

William W. Cooper is one of the founding figures of management science (MS), also known as operations research (OR) and decision science. He was a professor of OR, economics and accounting; and his career spanned over sixty years and more than three academic institutions. He was devoted to his students and his work, mentoring hundreds of graduates and authoring or editing twenty books and over 500 articles. William Cooper was well-known for his hard work, innovation and generosity, and despite numerous obstacles, he became one of the most celebrated scholars in his field.

William Cooper was born on July 23, 1914 in Alabama. He lived in Birmingham until he was three years old when his family decided to pack their belongings and move to Chicago, Illinois to find better opportunities. When he was young, his father owned a series of successful gas stations, but he lost them after the United States stock market crashed in 1929. In the midst of the financial struggle, his father’s health deteriorated, and Cooper quit high school after his sophomore year to find work. As a young man Cooper worked setting pins at bowling alleys, caddying at golf courses, and even boxing professionally. He earned 35 dollars for 9 minutes in the ring; and he was good, winning 58 of his 63 bouts (two of his bouts were draws). The determination Cooper developed during this time would influence his entire academic career.

In 1932, Cooper turned away from his life as a boxer. While hitchhiking to the Sunset Ridge Golf Course in Chicago, he met Eric L. Kohler, a professor at Northwestern University and a member of the Accounting Hall of Fame. Despite Cooper’s rough appearance, Kohler offered him a ride and the two men struck up a conversation. Kohler soon became Cooper’s mentor and they remained friends until Kohler’s death in 1976.

Although Cooper would never finish high school, Kohler pushed him to continue his education. Through the Student at Large Program at the University of Chicago and Kohler’s financial aid, he received a college education. He had an aptitude for learning, and after some time as a non-degree student, he took the college entrance exams and was accepted to the University of Chicago. In 1938, he graduated Phi Beta Kappa with an A.B. in economics.

While he was still enrolled in university, Cooper earned his first accounting job. At the time, Kohler was consulting for the accounting firm Arthur Anderson & Co. and he hired Cooper as a temporary assistant. While working on a patent infringement case, Cooper managed to identify mistakes in the defendant’s calculations, ultimately helping to win the case. Kohler recognized Cooper’s talents and hired him part-time. When Kohler left Arthur Anderson in 1938 to become Comptroller for the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), he invited Cooper to join him. Soon after, Cooper was in charge of internal auditing at the TVA.

In 1940, Cooper left the TVA to pursue a graduate degree at Columbia University. Columbia awarded him one of two coveted fellowships given to graduate students at the university, but Cooper never received his doctorate. His committee refused to either approve or reject his thesis. They insisted that he make revisions, and Cooper insisted that they accept it; they were at an impasse. About his doctoral experience at Columbia Cooper said, “I fought to two draws with my thesis committee at Columbia” – Cooper’s time in the ring influenced his diction throughout his life.

When the U.S. entered WWII in 1942, Cooper left Columbia for Washington to serve in the Bureau of Budget (BOB), now the Office of Management and Budget. He served as the Principal Economist at the BOB until 1944. In 1945, he married Ruth Fay West. A strong woman with an impressive career of her own, Ruth Cooper had a profound impact on her husband. They were married for over fifty years, separated only by Ruth’s passing in 2000.

After the war, Cooper decided not to return to Columbia. Instead, he accepted a teaching position at the University of Chicago. Inspired by his wife’s support, he had chosen to pursue his academic career without a degree. At his Alma Mater, he taught courses in economics but he only stayed for a short time. Within two years, George Leland Bach of the Carnegie Institute of Technology (CIT), now Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), offered him a position in the school’s new economics department. In 1946, Cooper left for Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

At CIT between 1946 and 1968, he served as a professor in the Tepper School of Business, known then as the Graduate School of Industrial Administration (GSIA). He was among the first faculty at GSIA and worked closely with Dean George Leland Bach and Nobel Prize winner Herbert A. Simon. Cooper headed up the school’s efforts in operations research and he focused on the practical application of management science theory.

Cooper and his GSIA colleagues revolutionized business and management education at the university level. Their students took courses in mathematics and the humanities, which at the time, was an unprecedented approach. The GSIA method soon spread to other universities, forever changing higher education in management. In 1968, Cooper left GSIA to become the first dean of the School of Urban and Public Affairs (SUPA), now the H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management. He served as dean for seven years, stepping down in 1975.

During his early years at CIT, Cooper developed a research and writing relationship with Abraham Charnes. Together they made landmark contributions to management science, including Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Chance Constrained Programming. They also performed research for the military, most notably for the Office of Naval Research. From 1949 to 1992, Charnes and Cooper produced over two hundred articles and wrote dozens of chapters and reports.

After leaving his deanship at SUPA, Cooper made his way to Cambridge where he helped develop the doctoral programs at the Harvard University Graduate School of Business. There he integrated many of the same analytical techniques he and his colleagues initiated at GSIA. He taught courses in accounting and management, stressing the importance of quantitative methods. He stayed at Harvard until 1980 when he reached the standard age of retirement for faculty in the business school.

In addition to Cooper’s teaching activities, he worked as a consultant for numerous organizations and he served on the editorial board of many professional journals. He was one of the founding members of the Operations Research Society of America (ORSA) and he was the first editor for the American Accounting Association’s professional journal.

Despite his age and already remarkable career, after Cooper left Harvard he journeyed south to the University of Texas at Austin where he continued teaching and writing for an additional 31 years. In Texas, he served as a professor emeritus until his death on June 20, 2012 at age 97.

Extent

85.0 Linear feet (86 Boxes)

Language

English

Overview

This collection contains the papers of William W. Cooper (1914-2012), the father of Management Science and founder of Data Envelopment Analysis. At Carnegie Mellon University, Cooper was a professor in the Tepper School of Business (then the Graduate School of Industrial Administration) and he was founding dean of the H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management (then the School of Urban and Public Affairs). The collection consists of 85 linear feet of papers, photographs, and digital media documenting Cooper’s lengthy and diverse career, including his work with figures such as Abraham Charnes, Herbert Simon, and Yuji Ijiri. A digitized version of this collection is available online: http://digitalcollections.library.cmu.edu/portal/index.jsp

Series Descriptions

Series I: Biographical Information

Series 1 is housed in 2 boxes, numbers 1 and 1A. It contains contextual and biographical materials on William Cooper, and it consists of correspondence, speeches, awards, honors, biographies, and articles. Often these materials contain information on the history of Carnegie Mellon University, specifically the Graduate School of Industrial Administration (GSIA) and the School of Urban and Public Affairs (SUPA). The materials also contain information on Cooper’s role in founding the field of management science. Notable items include Cooper's graduate thesis from Columbia University and videos of various speeches.



Series II: Publications

Series 2 is housed in 15 boxes, numbers 2 through 10F. It contains the published and unpublished papers, articles, book chapters, reprints, and drafts authored or co-authored by William Cooper. Cooper was a prolific writer. During his lifetime, he produced twenty books and over 500 articles; and he wrote on a wide range of subjects, including accounting, economics, operations research, and management science. In addition to articles and papers, folders contain supporting materials such as correspondence, drafts, notes, and original data. These materials illustrate Cooper’s distinctive research and writing process. In instances where all the materials would not fit into a single file folder, correspondence and research materials were placed in subsequent folders. For each folder, the processor noted the type of publication. The term "article" refers to a published version; the term "draft" refers to an edited version; the term "paper" refers to an unpublished version; and the term "reprint" refers to subsequent printings of an article. It is also important to note that there is some overlap between series 2 and series 3 in the collection. Many of the CCS Reports served as drafts for later publications. Series 2 is arranged alphabetically by title, and it is divided into three subseries, General Publications, Data Envelopment Analysis Publications, and Additional Publications.

Subseries I General Publications is housed in 7 boxes, numbers 2 through 8. It contains articles authored or co-authored by William Cooper on myriad subjects. It consists of original articles, reprints, drafts, and supporting materials.

Subseries II Data Envelopment Analysis Publications is housed in 2 boxes, numbers 9 and 10. It contains articles William Cooper produced on Data Envelopment Analysis, which was perhaps his best known contribution to the field of management science. He developed the method along with his colleague Abraham Charnes and his doctoral student Edwardo Rhodes. In addition to the articles and drafts, the majority of the file folders contain supporting research and correspondence.

Subseries III Additional Publications is housed in 6 boxes, numbers 10A through 10F. It contains articles, re-prints, and drafts authored or co-authored by William Cooper. These materials comprise a separate subseries because they were processed at a later date than the rest of the publications. In addition to the papers, folders often contain research and correspondence.



Series III: CCS Research Reports

Series 3 is housed in 14 boxes, numbers 11 through 24. It contains the research reports produced by the Center for Cybernetic Studies (CCS) at the University of Texas at Austin. In 1968 Abraham Charnes, William Cooper’s colleague and frequent co-author, founded the Center for Cybernetic Studies. CCS produced technical reports and working papers on topics in management science and related fields. CCS also conducted research for the Army, Navy, and branches of state and local governments. Some of the reports were co-authored by Charnes and Cooper, but the majority of them were produced by other scholars. CCS designated each report with a title and a consecutive number, ranging from 1 to 825. Not all of the reports produced by the Center for Cybernetic studies are included in the collection. Numbers not included are 13, 21, 23, 48, 62, 67, 72, 73, 74, 76, 116, 150, 152, 156, 157, 161, 183, 201, 226, 236, 239, 240, 246, 258, 274, 321, 399, 404, 405, 406, 430, 431, 435, 438, 439, 442, 443, 469, 518, 523, 529, 530, 531, 532, 533, 534, 535, 536, 537, 538, 539, 540, 541, 542, 543, 544, 545, 546, 547, 548, 549, 551, 552, 553, 554, 555, 556, 557, 560, 561, 562, 563, 564, 565, 566, 567, 568, 569, 570, 571, 573, 574, 576, 577, 578, 579, 580, 604, 637, 675, 682, 720, 725, 751, 770, 774, 786, 787, 790, 791, 792, 797, 799, 802, 805, 806, 807, 808, 809, 810, 816, 820, 821, and 822. In addition, the collection contains only abstracts for numbers 63, 464, 505, 524, 525, 617, 635, 681, 776, and 779. It is important to note that there is some overlap between series 3 and other series in the collection. Many of the CCS Reports served as drafts for other reports and publications. Series 3 is arranged by report number.



Series IV: Professional Files

Series 4 is housed in 7 boxes, numbers 25 through 31. It contains materials relating to William Cooper’s professional life outside of academia. The series consists of correspondence, reports, memorabilia, leaflets, clippings, and notes. It also includes information on Cooper's consulting contracts, military research, and grant proposals. The series is divided into five subseries, Early Career, Activities, Consulting, Military, and Research Proposals and Reports. Series 4 is arranged alphabetically by organization or subject.

Subseries IV Early Career is housed in 1 box, number 25. It contains correspondence and other materials relating to William Cooper’s career before he became a professor at the Carnegie Institute of Technology (CIT), now Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). It includes papers from his time at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and his time at the Bureau of Budget (BOB) during WWII.

Subseries V Activities is housed in 2 boxes, numbers 25 and 26. It contains materials relating to William Cooper’s non-academic activities, including his work with the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) and the Market Research Corporation of America (MRCA). It also contains information about various non-academic committees Cooper served on throughout his career.

Subseries VI Consulting is housed in 1 box, number 26. It contains materials relating to William Cooper’s various consulting contracts. Cooper served as a consultant for dozens of companies and offices, including the BBDO Advertising Agency and U.S. Steel. The subseries consists of correspondence, reports, papers, and notes.

Subseries VII Military is housed in 4 boxes, numbers 26 through 29. It contains William Cooper’s U.S. military research. He worked for the Office of Naval Research, the Army Recruiting Command, and the Office of Civilian Manpower Management. Some of the materials relate to Cooper’s work with Abraham Charnes and the Center for Cybernetic Studies (CCS). Also included in the subseries are military research proposals and budget reports.

Subseries VIII Research Proposals and Reports is housed in 2 boxes, numbers 30 and 31. It contains William Cooper’s non-military research proposals, progress reports, budget updates, and grant applications. Most often, the reports are related to research contracts and grant proposals. Some of them are related to his consulting activities. Proposals that contain personally identifiable information are restricted.

Series V: Conferences and Lectures

Series 5 is housed in 3 boxes, numbers 31 through 33. It consists of papers and correspondence relating to the many conferences and workshops that William Cooper attended over the course of his career. It contains some of Cooper's presentations and lectures. Series 5 is arranged alphabetically by conference title and then, if necessary, by location.



Series VI: Professional Societies

Series 6 is housed in 7 boxes, numbers 33 through 39. It contains materials relating to William Cooper’s activities in various professional societies and journals. Over the course of his career, Cooper was a member of numerous organizations, and he served as an editor or associate editor for many professional publications. Series 6 is arranged alphabetically according to organization or title, and it is divided into two subseries, Organizations and Journals.

Subseries IX Organizations is housed in 4 boxes, numbers 33 through 36. It contains information on William Cooper's membership in professional organizations. He served as an affiliate and advisor for many professional societies, including the American Accounting Association and the Operations Research Society of America (ORSA). The subseries consists meeting minutes, pamphlets, committee information, and correspondence.

Subseries X Journals is housed in 4 boxes, numbers 36 through 39. It contains information on William Cooper's academic and professional journals. Cooper served on the editorial board for several different publications. He also served as a referee, consultant, and ongoing contributor. The subseries consists of referee reports, correspondence, and copies of articles and journals.



Series VII: Academic Files

Series 7 is housed in 15 boxes, numbers 39 through 53. It contains William Cooper's academic papers and records. The materials span the course of his entire academic career, and they contain information on Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), Harvard University, and The University of Texas at Austin. The series consists of teaching materials, correspondence, and student information. It also includes his students' research materials, theses, and dissertations. Any materials that contain personally identifiable materials are restricted, including grades, evaluations, and exams. Series 7 is arranged alphabetically by subject or name, and it is arranged into 6 subseries, Activities, Carnegie Mellon University, Harvard University, The University of Texas at Austin, Student Files, and Dissertations and Theses.

Subseries XI Activities is housed in 2 boxes, numbers 39 and 40. It contains information on William Cooper's general academic activities, including his position as a visiting lecturer at Aoyama Gakuin University in Tokyo, Japan. This subseries also contains grades, evaluations, and information on individual doctoral programs. Student records and materials that contain personally identifiable information are restricted.

Subseries XII Carnegie Mellon University is housed in 2 boxes, numbers 41 and 42. It contains information on Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), also known as the Carnegie Institute of Technology (CIT) and Carnegie-Mellon University (C-MU). The subseries consists of lectures, notes, class projects, correspondence, donations, and committee materials. The subseries also contains general information on the Graduate School of Industrial Administration (GSIA) and the School of Urban and Public Affairs (SUPA). After Cooper left CMU, he maintained his interest in the development of the two schools. He attended alumni and faculty reunions, and he served on several marketing committees.

Subseries XIII Harvard University is housed in 1 box, number 42. It contains information on Harvard University. It consists of general information, correspondence, articles, and newspaper clippings. It also contains information on William Cooper's appointment as the Arthur Lowes Dickinson Professor of Accounting.

Subseries XVI The University of Texas at Austin is housed in 4 boxes, numbers 42 through 45. It contains information on The University of Texas at Austin. It consists of correspondence, articles, course materials, and teaching evaluations. It also includes information on endowments and donations.

Subseries XV Student Research and Correspondence is housed in 3 boxes, numbers 45 through 47. It contains information on William Cooper's students. It consists of research, correspondence, recommendations, notes, articles, and papers. Notable names include Indranil Bardhan and Rajiv D. Banker. The subseries is arranged alphabetically by institution and then by students' names.

Subseries XVI Dissertations and Theses is housed in 6 boxes, numbers 48 through 53. It contains dissertations and theses, many of which were written by Cooper's students. Notable names include Yuji Ijiri and Edwardo Rhodes. Most of the materials in the series are bound. The subseries is arranged alphabetically by institution and then by students' names.



Series VIII: Correspondence

Series 8 is housed in 16 boxes, numbers 54 through 69. It contains the correspondence of William Cooper. It consists of letters, emails, notes, recommendations, and other related materials. The contents of the correspondence range from research advice to Cooper's history. In some letters, Cooper addresses subjects in management science such as Data Envelopment Analysis. Many of the files contain also biographical materials on the recipient. These materials include vitas, papers, clippings, and articles. Series 8 is organized alphabetically by name and it is divided into two subseries, Personal Correspondence and Professional Correspondence.

Subseries XVII Personal Correspondence is housed in 1 box, number 54. It contains the personal correspondence of William Cooper. The materials in these files provide insight into Cooper’s relationships with his family and non-professional friends and acquaintances. Notable names include Rae Cooper, his mother; Ruth Cooper, his wife; and Emilie Boguchwal, his sister.

Subseries XVIII Professional Correspondence is housed in 16 boxes, numbers 54 through 69. It contains William Cooper’s professional correspondence. Important topics include the history of Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Accounting Hall of Fame, and the Government Accountability Office (GAO). The series contains letters from Abraham Charnes, Richard M. Cyert, Herbert A. Simon, Yuji Ijiri, Eric L. Kohler, George Leland Bach, and George Kozmetsky. Because Cooper maintained his relationships with former students and colleagues, many of the letters in this series served as letters of recommendation and/or provided research or publication advice. In addition, many of the files contain published and unpublished papers, drafts, vitas, and general biographical information about each individual. File folder titles contain the recipients' names and associated institutions.



Series IX: Personal Files

Series 9 is housed in 2 boxes, numbers 69 and 70. It consists of Cooper’s personal papers and materials. It contains his address book, passports, and glasses. It also contains health and finance information. It is important to note that some of the items in this series are fragile.



Series X: Photographs

Series 10 is housed in 2 boxes, numbers 71 and 72. It contains all of the photographs from the collection. In order to retain context, wherever a photograph was removed from the collection, a paper reading “item removed” was placed in the folder. The paper also gives directions on where to find the image. The series consists of black and white prints, color prints, and digital print-outs on copy paper. VIPs include Herbert A. Simon, Yuji Ijiri, and Eric L. Kohler. It also includes images of Cooper's family. It contains only one set of negatives.



Series XI: Reference Files

Series 11 is housed in 7 boxes, numbers 73 through 79. It contains the research files of William Cooper. He kept files on a wide range of topics, including chance constrained programming, goal programming, and the Bell System. The series consists of notes, papers, reports, articles, books, and journals. Throughout many of the articles and books, Cooper made numerous comments in the margins. These files were minimally processed. The folder titles were taken directly from Cooper’s own folder labels, except in cases where the title was unclear or too vague. Series 11 is arranged alphabetically by subject. The books are arranged alphabetically by author.

Physical Location

6555 Penn Avenue, Offsite Storage

Acronyms and Definitions

AAA: American Accounting Association.

AFRP: Department of the Air Force Research Project at the Carnegie Institute of Technology.

BBDO: Batten, Barton, Durstine, and Osborn, Inc., an advertising agency in New York City.

BOB: United States Bureau of Budget.

CCS: Center for Cybernetic Studies at The University of Texas at Austin.

CCR: Refers to the Charnes, Cooper, and Rhodes ratio introduced in the paper "Measuring the Efficiency of Decision Making Units."

CRS: Constant Returns to Scale.

DBA: Doctor of Business Administration.

DEA: Data Envelopment Analysis.

DEMON: Decision Mapping via Optimum Go-No Networks.

DMU: Decision Making Units.

DOD: Department of Defense.

ECA: Economic Cooperation Administration.

EEO: Equal Employment Opportunity.

EJOR: European Journal of Operations Research.

EURO: Association of European Operational Research Societies.

GAO: Government Accountability Office.

GSIA: The Graduate School of Industrial Administration at the Carnegie Institute of Technology, now known as the Tepper School of Business at Carnegie Mellon University.

iDEAs: International Data Envelopment Analysis Society.

INFORMS: The Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences.

IFORS: International Federation Of Operational Research Societies.

JPA: Journal of Productivity Analysis.

MAS: Management Advisory Services Section of the American Accounting Association. Also refers to the Management Accounting Section of the American Accounting Association.

MDI: Minimum Discrimination Information. Also called the Khincin-Kullbak-Leibler method or Kullback-Leibler method.

MS: Management Science.

MRCA: Market Research Corporation of America.

NEWS: New Product Early Warning System.

NSF: National Science Foundation.

OCMM: Navy Office of Civilian Manpower Management.

OMB: Relates to the United States Bureau of Budget.

ONR: Office of Naval Research.

OR: Operations Research.

ORSA: The Operations Research Society of America.

PAMRAN: Panel on Applied Mathematics Research Alternatives for the Navy.

RAND: The Research and Development Corporation.

SAND DABS: Shephard-Abrams New Dynamic Data Analysis of Brand Switching.

SEIO: Sociedad de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, or in English, Spanish Society of Statistics and Operations Research.

SFA: Stochastic Frontier Analysis.

SOA: Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

SUPA: The School of Urban and Public Affairs at the Carnegie Institute of Technology, now known as the H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management at Carnegie Mellon University.

TIMS: The Institute of Management Sciences.

TISS: The Institute of System Sciences.

TVA: Tennessee Valley Authority.

Provenance

The Collection was transferred from William W. Cooper’s office at The University of Texas at Austin to the Carnegie Mellon University Archives in 2012.

Related Archival Materials

Several other collections in the Carnegie Mellon University Archives contain materials related to William Cooper. They include the GSIA Collection, the Tepper School of Business Records, the Herbert Simon Collection, and the Yuji Ijiri Collection. In addition, the General Photographs Collection contains various images of Cooper.

Processing Information

Processed and encoded by Katherine Barbera from January 2013 to April 2014.
Title
William W. Cooper Papers, 1887-2012
Subtitle
2013.33
Status
In Process
Author
Finding aid prepared by Katherine Barbera
Date
3/28/2014
Description rules
Describing Archives: A Content Standard
Language of description
Undetermined
Script of description
Code for undetermined script
Language of description note
English

Repository Details

Part of the Carnegie Mellon University Archives Repository

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